- The European Age of Exploration and Colonization
- 15th Century Europe
- Economic, Technological, and Demographic Reasons behind expansion.
- Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, France, England
- Goal of European Exploration and Colonization?
- Explore, conquer, and colonize (Africa, Asia, and the Americas)
- Maritime leaders seeking allies in West Africa to spread Christianity and battle against the Muslims of Northern Africa
- Foremost interest of all European nations were trade with African kingdoms
- Trade with India, China, Japan, and East Indian Islands of supreme importance
- Trade Route Matters
- (1487) Bartholomeau Dias (Portuguese) discovered the Cape of Good Hope
- (1497) Vasco de Gama (Portuguese) made this route viable for commerce
- (1492) Spanish monarchy funded Columbus’ voyage — “going west to get east”
- The Slave Trade
- “Slavery” predates the arrival of Europeans (Things Fall Apart)
- Portuguese voyagers found a vibrant slave trade run by Muslims when they arrived in
- Enslavement practices of Muslims were not necessarily racially based
- There were Europeans enslaved in these regions as well
- Sudanese horsemen were integral to North African slavery
- Rode into the interior to capture slaves
- Women and Children were seized (concubines and domestic servants)
- How does this conflict with the cargo desired for the “New World”?
- The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
- Portuguese ship captains traded with African Kings for gold, ivory, and pepper — they also sought slaves.
- 1411 Antam Goncalvez (Portuguese) took two slaves as a gift to his Prince.
- Portuguese purchased slaves from African traders
- Process began in 1472 when the King of Benin gave Portuguese merchant Ruy do Siqueira permission to trade for slaves, gold, and ivory in his territory.
- What was the role of ethnic fighting on the slave system?
- Did Africans sell their own people into slavery?
- Africans and Europeans were devoid of the concept of racial solidarity
- “I must own to the shame of my countrymen that I was first kidnapped and betrayed by those of my own complexion” (Ottobah Cugoano)
- 15th Century Europe
Estimated Slave Imports by Destination (1451 – 1870)
|DESTINATION||TOTAL “SLAVE” IMPORTS|
|BRITISH NORTH AMERICA||339,000|