The Peculiar Institution in its Infancy Stage

  • The European Age of Exploration and Colonization
    • 15th Century Europe
      • Economic, Technological, and Demographic Reasons behind expansion.
      • Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, France, England
    • Goal of European Exploration and Colonization?
      • Explore, conquer, and colonize (Africa, Asia, and the Americas)
    • Portugal
      • Maritime leaders seeking allies in West Africa to spread Christianity and battle against the Muslims of Northern Africa
      • Foremost interest of all European nations were trade with African kingdoms
        • Trade with India, China, Japan, and East Indian Islands of supreme importance
      • Trade Route Matters
        • (1487) Bartholomeau Dias (Portuguese) discovered the Cape of Good Hope
        • (1497) Vasco de Gama (Portuguese) made this route viable for commerce
        • (1492) Spanish monarchy funded Columbus’ voyage — “going west to get east”
      • The Slave Trade
        • “Slavery” predates the arrival of Europeans (Things Fall Apart)
        • Portuguese voyagers found a vibrant slave trade run by Muslims when they arrived in
          • Senegambia
          • Benin
          • Kongo
        • Enslavement practices of Muslims were not necessarily racially based
          • There were Europeans enslaved in these regions as well
          • Sudanese horsemen were integral to North African slavery
            • Rode into the interior to capture slaves
            • Women and Children were seized (concubines and domestic servants)
            • How does this conflict with the cargo desired for the “New World”?
          • The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
            • Portuguese ship captains traded with African Kings for gold, ivory, and pepper — they also sought slaves.
            • 1411 Antam Goncalvez (Portuguese) took two slaves as a gift to his Prince.
            • Portuguese purchased slaves from African traders
              • Process began in 1472 when the King of Benin gave Portuguese merchant Ruy do Siqueira permission to trade for slaves, gold, and ivory in his territory.
            • What was the role of ethnic fighting on the slave system?
            • Did Africans sell their own people into slavery?
            • Africans and Europeans were devoid of the concept of racial solidarity
              • “I must own to the shame of my countrymen that I was first kidnapped and betrayed by those of my own complexion” (Ottobah Cugoano)

Estimated Slave Imports by Destination (1451 – 1870)

DESTINATION TOTAL “SLAVE” IMPORTS
BRITISH NORTH AMERICA 339,000
SPANISH AMERICA 1,552,100
BRITISH CARIBBEAN 1,665,000
FRENCH CARIBBEAN 1,600,200
DUTCH CARIBBEAN 500,000
DANISH CARIBBEAN 28,000
BRAZIL 3,464,800
OLD WORLD 175,000

 

Committed to investigating, examining, and representing the African-American male, men, and manhood by offering commentary regarding the status of Black Men and Black Manhood as it relates to African-American Manhood, Race, Class, Politics, and Culture from an educated and authentic African-American perspective aimed at improving the plight of African-American men and African-American Manhood in regards to Politics, Culture, Education, and Social Matters.

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